Eswatini Crisis: Time to rethink the governance and allow multi-party democracy

Eswatini Crisis: Time to rethink the governance and allow multi-party democracy

In response to the police and army violence against protestors in Eswatini, the Southern African Human Rights Defenders Networks has written to SADC asking for inclusive negotiations to introduce democracy and human rights and making nine key ‘asks’ as the basis for a sustainable and just resolution to the crisis.

Deadly protests erupted in Eswatini following a decree by King Mswati III on the 24th of June 2021 which banned citizens from sending petitions to parliamentarians to demand democratic reforms. The ban fueled protests in the country’s two largest cities of Manzini and Mbabane, with demonstrators calling for King Mswati III to step down and allow for a transition to democracy. Some buildings connected to King Mswati III were reportedly torched by protesters.

Some have called for the King to open a multi-stakeholder dialogue to reflect on democratic reforms. The King is understood to have dug in to say such an approach amounts to negotiating with terrorists and has invoked Covid-19 lockdown measures as a pretext to clamp down on the revolt and impose a curfew strictly and brutally enforced by the military.

In an apparent unprecedented panic, the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Troika has proactively deployed a mission whose objective remains unclear and unfocused. The protestors are defiant. The King is defiant. The SADC is currently clueless on how to help. The AU and the international community are silent.

The powerful neighbour South Africa which controls the Southern Africa Customs Union, a key revenue source for Eswatini, is in turmoil with unprecedented riots and looting following the detention of former president Zuma.

The questions on the lips of many are, have we reached the tipping point? What can be done?

Meanwhile, the King of Eswatini has appointed a new Prime Minister, Cleopas Dlamini, to replace Ambrose Dlamini who succumbed to Covid-19 in December last year, blatantly disregarding ongoing calls for democratic reforms – including the right to democratically elect a Prime Minister. On the 16th of July, during the traditional consultation (Sibaya) where he announced the appointment of the new Prime Minister, the King dismissed protesters as “satanic” and “dagga smokers” and accused them of taking the country backwards. 

Earlier that day, protesters took to the streets in Manzini, the second-largest city. Swaziland National Association of Teachers (SNAT) Secretary-General Sikelela Dlamini reported that police fired tear gas and used water cannons to disperse protesters in the city. Two people were injured while 15 were detained and later released. Among those detained was Mlungisi Makhanya, President of the People’s United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO) and Sibongile Mazibuko, President of the Ngwane National Liberatory Congress (NNLC).

1973 decree by King Sobhuza

The political and security unrest has been brewing for years as a result of the April 12, 1973 decree by King Sobhuza, which abolished multi-party democracy in favour of an absolute Monarchy. Sadly, the 2005 constitution of Swaziland failed to restore real multi-party democracy but instead maintained the ban on political parties.

The political unrest in Eswatini, the last absolute monarchy in Africa has brought to the fore enduring and deep-seated governance problems that cannot be ignored anymore. The undemocratic nature of the monarchical system, the immediate causes of the current crisis and the brutal response by the authorities presents a strong case for a new direction for Eswatini.

Of all the possible solutions possible, it is imperative to recognise the futility of papering over the cracks. Short-term measures to put out the current fire are inadequate. It amounts to postponing the problem and growing the magnitude of inevitable future conflict. Whereas the SADC would be the natural agent for the job, its long history of siding with the elites, ruling and economic class at the expense of citizens does not inspire confidence.

Is it time for a serious paradigm shift that sets the country on a better trajectory underpinned by major political reforms? Are the authorities ready for this shift?

A long time coming: Student’s brutal murder only a trigger to a deep-seated crisis

The killing of Thabani Nkomonye – a law student at the University of Swaziland – by the police in May 2021 triggered an already volatile situation into sustained protest action. The assassination of Nkomonye is just but a symptom of everything that is wrong with the governance system in Eswatini. In response to protest action, authorities imposed an internet blackout and deployed soldiers and the police to disperse protesters. Violent clashes between protesters and the law enforcement agents ensued, resulting in the death of over 70 citizens and the hospitalization of hundreds of protesters for injuries, including gunshot wounds sustained from live ammunition fired by the police. The wanton killing and arbitrary arrests and detention of unarmed civilians has not made the protests go away. If anything it seems to be emboldening resistance and creating conditions for the situation to deteriorate.

On the 4th of July, SADC deployed a Fact-Finding Mission composed of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Republics of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. It was led by Hon. Dr Lemogang Kwape, Minister of International Affairs of the Republic of Botswana, in his capacity as the Chairperson of the SADC Ministerial Committee of the Organ Troika on Politics, Defence and Security.

Their mandate was unclear and unfocused. It appeared like a knee jerk reaction to a conflict without a clear agenda. It was not surprising that the Troika delegation only met with the authorities and supporters of the Royal family and not with broad-based stakeholders like civil society, comprising churches, labour, students and pro-democracy activists. Unless the approach is changed, SADC is unlikely to impact sustainable change for the benefit of all in Eswatini.

The Southern Africa Human Rights Defenders Network, an organization that protects human rights defenders in the face of attacks and shrinking civic space, has welcomed SADC’s decision to deploy the Mission whose purpose they understood was to gather first-hand information on the disturbances, including the state of security in Eswatini, and to appeal for calm and restraint from all the stakeholders, as well as to propose consideration of an open national dialogue, as a way forward in the efforts towards finding a lasting solution.

In a letter addressed to Dr Stergomena Lawrence Tax, the SADC Executive Secretary, on 5 July, Southern Defenders noted that the Monarchy and concomitant absence of constitutional democracy, restricted civic space, and the economic inequalities and concentration of wealth and economic power in the hands of the few ruling elites and politically connected were at the heart of the instability in Eswatini. The Southern Defenders pointed out that the Monarchy continues to limit civic space, depriving Eswatini citizens of credible outlets to voice discontent and contribute to governance, while brutally suppressing dissent.

The ruling elites were also accused of enriching themselves at the expense of more than 60% of the population who live in abject poverty. 

It was against this background that the Southern Defenders issued nine key asks, urging SADC to:

  1. Advise the Eswatini authorities on immediate steps to de-escalate the situation, by addressing citizen’s grievances through meaningful engagement and insisting that those who were arrested should be subjected to a due process without further delay and that the safety and security of the public be guaranteed.
  2. Encourage the Eswatini authorities to allow pro-democracy groups and trade unions including the Trade Union Congress of Swaziland (TUCOSWA) to organize and communicate freely with all Swazis.
  3. Encourage urgent inclusive constitutional reform that legalises political parties and allows multiparty democracy as well as robust and inclusive political engagement.
  4. Pursue an inclusive and holistic response to the unfolding political and humanitarian crisis, arguably caused by an elite leadership crisis that has manifested in severe governance deficits and exposed the excesses of the absolute Monarchy as an outdated and authoritarian political system.
  5. Insist that the army immediately returns to the barracks, and that an independent commission of inquiry be established to investigate promptly and transparently the role of the military and other security forces in the killings of civilians to ensure accountability and justice for the victims and survivors.
  6. Encourage the Eswatini government to uphold its international and domestic legal obligations to respect and enforce the citizens’ fundamental human rights to respect the constitution and guarantee freedom of expression, association, and assembly as well as freedom to use the internet. Eswatini is a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) which prohibit the cruel treatment that pro-democracy activists are currently subjected to.
  7. Urge the authorities in Eswatini to repeal oppressive laws, including the 2008 Suppression of Terrorism Act and 1938 Sedition and Subversive Activities Act and to allow political exiles to safely return and be included in the political dialogue.
  8. Support efforts for police reforms, to increase the capacity of the Eswatini police in rights-based public order policing.
  9. Ensure that SADC and South Africa support Eswatini, including ensuring that trade and membership to the Customs Union is sustained upon delivery of meaningful reforms and should be linked to a human rights due diligence process.

The Southern Defenders also strongly advocate for continued attention and intervention by SADC and South Africa to ensure that they assist the people of Eswatini in pursuing a peaceful path to substantial democratic reform.

As the political stalemate in Eswatini continues, it is becoming increasingly clear that the roots of the problem are in the undemocratic nature of the political system. The citizens of Eswatini yearning for a modern, democratic state need to be taken seriously for sustainable peace. The SADC and the AU have a wonderful opportunity to help the Monarchy and the people of Eswatini to pause and reflect on the type of governance architecture that best serves the interests of all eMaswati. We hope the opportunity will not be wasted.


SAHRDN is in partnership with the Daily Maverick on the weekly Human Rights Round-Up is meant to give snapshots of the main human rights news that happens in Southern African countries, particularly related to the growing Covid-19 crisis. By telling and reflecting on these stories it is hoped this will contribute towards integrating the efforts of human rights defenders across the region. It is also intended to inform the policy community of the main threats confronting human rights defenders.


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Posts



The Southern African Human Rights Network (Southern Defenders) calls for the nomination for the 2021 Southern Defenders Awards for outstanding Human Rights Defenders. The annual Southern Defenders Award was established in 2018 to celebrate the courage and resilience...

Zambia election: the good, the bad and the ugly

Zambia election: the good, the bad and the ugly

The recently concluded election in Zambia was a breath of fresh air for a region battered by disputed and deadly violent electoral cycles. This article celebrates the Zambian election not just because of its outcome, but because the collective will of the people...



Uganda’s NGO Bureau, the country’s regulatory authority for non-governmental organizations (NGOs), should immediately rescind the decision to suspend 54 organizations that they have classified as NGOs, which comes in the context of intensifying intimidation and...